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S0LAR/1034-79/C5 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



ALPHA CONSTRUCTION CO. 
MAY 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
/ernment. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

ALPHA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

MAY 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Alpha Construction Company site is a single-family residence in Canton, 
Ohio. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic 
hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 428 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 
37 degrees to the horizontal. Air is the transfer medium that delivers solar 
energy from the collector array to storage and to the space heating and hot 
water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 510-cubic-foot bin 
containing 50,100 pounds of rock. The bin has concrete block walls and 
polyurethane insulation. Preheated city water is stored in an 80-gallon 
preheat storage tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 52-gallon DHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
heat pump in the air-handling unit provides auxiliary energy for space heating. 
Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank provides auxiliary 
energy for water heating. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 
four modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the collector 
is operating, a space heating demand exists, and the plenum temperature at 
the top of storage is above the minimum value suitable for supplying heat to 
the house. Collection begins when the temperature at the top of the collector 
is higher by a minimum amount than the temperature in the plenum at the bottom 
of storage. Heated air is passed through the plenum at the top of storage 
and circulated through the house by the heat pump air-handling unit before 
being returned to the collector. 

Mode 2 - Col lector- to-Storage : This mode activates when the collector is 
operating and there is either no demand for space heating or the plenum 



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temperature at the top of storage is below the minimum value for supplying 
heat to the house. 

Mode 3 - Storage-to-Space Heat ing: This mode activates when there is a 
demand for space heating, and the plenum temperature at the top of storage is 
above the minimum value for supplying heat to the house. The fan in the air- 
handling unit draws air from the bin, circulating it through the house and 
back to storage. 

Mode 4 - Domestic Water Preheating : This mode activates when the collector is 
operating and when the temperature at the top of the collector indicates a 
minimum value for hot water heating, which must be above the plenum tempera- 
ture at the bottom of storage. 



1 1 . PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied in May and the solar energy system operated continu- 
ously during the month. Total solar energy collected was 4.2 million Btu and 
the total solar energy used was 0.43 million Btu or 10 percent of the collec- 
ted energy. The change in stored energy was 0.069 million Btu and the total 
system losses amounted to 3.7 million Btu. Solar energy satisfied 88 per- 
cent of the space heating requirements. There was no demand for hot water 
during the month. The solar energy system incurred an electrical energy 
expense of 0.55 million Btu. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
19.0 million Btu for a daily average of 1432 Btu per square foot. This was 



below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during May of 1533 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 
of 37 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during May 
was 58°F as compared with the long-term average for May of 59°F. The number 
of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 274, as 
compared with the long-term average of 231. The number of cooling degree- 
days was 43, as compared with the average of 36. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During May the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer than 
expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as input. Solar energy 
used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected would 
be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 0.43 million Btu 
versus an estimated 0.7 million Btu. System total solar fraction was 88 
percent versus an estimated 100 percent. 

Col lector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of May was 19.0 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating, the total insolation amounted to 17.2 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of May was 4.2 million Btu, resulting in 
a collector array efficiency of 22 percent, based on total incident insolation. 
Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 3.8 million 
Btu, while solar energy delivered from the collector array directly to the 
loads amounted to 0.18 million Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the 
collector array to storage and loads was 0.24 million Btu. This loss repre- 
sented 6 percent of the energy collected. Operating energy required by the 
collector loop was 0.37 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 3.8 million Btu. There were 
0.25 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. Energy 



loss from storage was 3.5 million Btu. This loss represented 92 percent of 
the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 8 percent: This 
is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and 
the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average 
storage temperature for the month was 113°F. 

DHW Loa d - Because the home was unoccupied in May, there was no demand for 
hot water. A total of 0.18 million Btu of solar energy was used to heat the 
water in the preheat tank. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.27 
million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 
0.27 million Btu. An additional 0.26 million Btu of auxiliary electrical 
energy were used by the hot water tank to maintain the temperature. The 
average temperature of the water in the DHW tank was 119°F. 

Space Heating Load - The measured space heating load for the unoccupied home 
during May was 0.29 million Btu. The solar energy system provided 0.25 
million Btu. The remaining load of 0.035 million Btu was satisfied by an 
auxiliary electrical heat pump and an electrical heating element at an elec- 
trical energy consumption of 0.011 million Btu. The space heating subsystem 
consumed an additional 0.036 million Btu of operating energy. A net electrical 
energy savings of 0.096 million Btu were obtained from the solar portion of 
the space heating subsystem. 



OBSERVATIONS 

The solar energy site was unoccupied during May and presented a minimum space 
heating load due to a low thermostat setting of 62°F and relatively mild 
ambient temperature. More solar energy than required was collected to 
satisfy the space heating load. The uncontrolled energy escape from storage 
of 3.5 million Btu into the conditioned space and the outside environment 
caused electrical energy to be expended for 12 percent of the space heating 
load by the auxiliary heat pump. 



During the month, the collector air-flow sensor (Wl 00) continued to read 
lower values of air flow than previously measured. The cause for this reduced 
air flow remains undetermined; however, a faulty sensor is suspected. There- 
fore, collected energy for the month may be slightly higher than stated in 
the attached report. The losses from storage would be increased by the same 
amount, since the measured energy delivered to the load is not affected. 

The DHW preheat loop expended more operating energy than the amount of solar 
energy transferred to the DHW preheat tank. The configuration of the DHW 
preheat loop permits solar energy transfer to the preheat tank only when 
collection is occurring. A separate air blower is required by this subsystem 
and adds significantly to operating costs. Frequently the heated air from the 
collector at the beginning or end of the collection period is cooler than the 
temperature of the water in the preheat tank. The operation of the preheat 
loop, which is independent of the water temperature in the tank, extracts 
energy from the tank during these periods. During periods of heating from 
storage, an induced air flow occurs through the DHW loop. A portion of the 
unmeasurable energy loss from storage may escape through this air path. 
During the cooling season the storage subsystem must be operated in order to 
operate the DHW preheat loop and energy that is not used by the DHW subsystem 
is collected in storage. However, the energy losses from storage transfer 
into the conditioned space and add to the space cooling loads. These energy 
losses reduce the energy savings obtained by the DHW subsystem. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system incurred a total electrical energy expense of 0.55 
million Btu. The space heating subsystem provided an electrical energy 
savings of 0.096 million Btu, but this was eliminated due to the expense of 
operating the DHW subsystem (0.27 million Btu) and the collection subsystem 
(0.37 million Btu). 



III. ACTION STATUS 

Boeing conducted a preliminary air-mapping survey in October which revealed 
significant leaks in the energy collection and storage subsystems. Sealing 
the accessible leaks would only provide minimal improvement. 

Boeing has been advised of the reduced air-flow measurements of W100. 
A schedule for corrective action has not been established. 



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